A Review of The Crisis Prevention Institute (CPI), Non-Violent Physical
Intervention Program


"Throughout the history of Michigan State University, a special covenant has existed
between MSU and the citizens of Michigan. As a land-grant and AAU institution,
Michigan State University has worked to ensure that its knowledge resources are available
to the greater society.  The complex and interrelated nature of today's challenges require
an even more aggressive and well reasoned approach" (Focus on Michigan's Future,
1993).  Therefore, MSU has facilitated an issues identification process through its
Extension and regional outreach units.  Leadership was provided by University faculty
members and Extension field staff.  Each Michigan county developed and prioritized
issues in their specific county-wide community through an advisory committee consisting
of opinion leaders, Extension users and non-users, volunteers, agency representatives,
teachers, farmers, parents and business people who share common concern for the future
of their communities.  Regional lists of prioritized issues were also developed.

A large number of Michigan counties listed "safety, violence and crime" as issues
negatively effecting their communities.  This identified issue was very prevalent in the
urban areas, notably, the Southeast region of Michigan.  This ten county area includes the
Metropolitan Detroit  Area, which represents approximately one-third of the Michigan's
population.  The identified issue is stated as:

 Community Development/Crime and Violence:
 Lack of knowledge, lack of skills and a weak sense of community inhibits effective
 response to crime; residents have a lack of pride in their communities and there is
 an inconsistency in leadership and commitment among residents
 (Focus on Michigan's Future, 1993).

A team of Michigan State University Extension educators have been selected and trained
in facilitating Crisis Prevention Institute's (CPI), "Non-violent Crisis Intervention
Program."   The philosophy of this program is to provide the best care, safety, and
security at any given moment to the individuals in your charge even in violent moments.
The program has been designed to provide the same care, safety and security to the
participants as they learn the skills and techniques during the training (National Crisis
Prevention Institute,  Instructor's Manual, 1987).  Other safety tips, suggestions and
discussions have been added , designed to enhance the Extension educator or volunteer
role(s).  Targeted participants are Extension staff and volunteers throughout the state of
Michigan.  Several staff in-services have been completed and continuously planned.


The purpose of the Non-Violent Physical Intervention Program is to prepare individuals to
recognize and de-escalate potentially violent situations.  The care, welfare, safety and
security for anyone involved in crisis intervention.

Program Type

The CPI program is an institutional designed formal education experience with various
instructional strategies utilized to maintain interest and reach individuals' different learning
styles.  A "team teaching" approach is used in most of our settings.  Facilitation of the
program may also be presented with one facilitator.

Program Design

Instructor/Facilitator requirements:  Successful participation in the four day facilitator
training workshop.  As a certified instructor, you are certified to train the staff of the
facility/organization which constitutes your base employment.  Michigan State University
Extension employees and registered volunteers constitute our authorized target audience.
In order to retain certification, twenty four hours of instruction must take place and the re-
certification fee must be submitted annually.  This certification is maintained upon job
change and the new organization staff is then the authorized target audience.

Training Environment:  Adequate space is required for "informal" classroom setting to
contribute to openness of participants and a carpeted activity area for technique training.
This area will require up to 1500 square feet for an average class size of twenty-five,
larger area for maximum class size of forty.

Class size:  Minimum: seven (7); maximum:  forty (40).  Classes have an average of fifteen
(15) to twenty-five (25) participants.

Course materials:  All materials of this program have strict copyright requirements along
with strict restrictions of facilitators.
 Pre & Post-tests:  Copyrighted tests which are required to be given.  Post test
must be submitted and a score of 80% achieved in order for participant to become
certified in the CPI program.
 Participant workbooks:  This workbook is the only cost to participants,
excluding refreshments and instructor re-certification fee.  Participants are given
workbooks in order to complete as their note guide.  Theoretically, this book also
becomes a reference for them in the future.  The pre and post-tests are also included as
part of the workbook which protects the CPI, Inc., from illegal copying of tests for
 Student Completion Cards:  Successful participation is rewarded with a student
completion card.  Participants are not able to present the CPI program to others.

Instructional Strategies

Various instructional strategies are utilized in order to reach various learner needs and
styles.  The following lists the program course outline with strategies used to attempt to
deliver the message.

Introduction:  Very important for success of program.  Ice breaker activities are utilized
for group to begin to relate to each other.  Name tags and name tents are used to
individualize participants.  CPI program, materials and agenda are reviewed.  Learner
expectations are part of this time and constantly referred back to for clarification and to
attempt to meet learner needs.
 Strategies:  small & large group activities, short lecture, dialogue.

Pre-test:  This is titled, "What do you know?" on agenda in order to attempt to make
learner comfortable.  The pre-test is NOT emphasized.
 Strategies:  short lecture, explanation and modeling.

Preventive Techniques:  Use of CPI video for this section.  The facilitator then reviews
and interjects activities, poses questions and draws on past experiences of participants.
 Strategies:  lecture, video, problem solving, questioning.

Personal Space:  This section begins with actual role plays and activities.  Lecture of
content then follows with bridging back to activities and past experiences.
 Strategies:  lecture, role plays, questioning, activities.

Paraverbal Communication:   This section relates to recognizing body language and
how something is said or received is just as important as what is said.
 Strategies:  Role plays, activities-individual & small group, lecture and

Verbal Intervention:  Discussion and activities regarding recognizing the crisis cycle and
attempting to stop the cycle before physical acting out is achieved.
 Strategies:  lecture, role play, problem posing, small group activities, problem

Wrap-up Question/Answer Period:  a review of where we were today and where we are
exploring tomorrow.  Questioning regarding if anything was new, reviewed and how the
information has been or will be utilized in the future.
 Strategies:  problem posing and questioning.

DAY 2:

Ice breaker:  An activity to maintain group comfort takes place.

Review:  Previous day material, activities, experiences and learner expectation list are
discussed.  An attempt to draw learners into dialogue regarding materials presented
yesterday and materials to be presented today takes place.
 Strategies:  problem posing, questioning, model.

Precipitating factors/rational detachment:  CPI video and information is discussed
regarding possible causes of  anger and detaching oneself from the personal attack.
 Strategies:  lecture, role play, small group activities, sharing experiences,

Staff fear and anxiety:  A presentation of physiological factors of fear and possible
causes plus control techniques.
 Strategies:  lecture, small group activities, problem posing and scenario solving
(cooperative learning).

Nonviolent physical intervention techniques:  Teaching of actual techniques to use in a
violent situation.  The goal is to provide for the safety and welfare of all involved, unlike a
self defense act.
Strategies:  use of CPI video, transparencies, lecture, modeling, small group
activities, individual activities, problem posing, questioning.

Postvention:  The time after a violent or potentially violent situation occurs is called
postvention.  The participants are provided with techniques to follow with acting out
person and all involved.
Strategies:  video, lecture, problem posing and questioning.

Wrap-up and questions:  review of two day activities.  The attempt to discuss and open
dialogue regarding past and future experiences.  Review of learner expectations and
meeting of needs.
 Strategies:  problem posing, dialogue, questioning.

Post test:  The agenda and emphasis is titled, "What have you learned?"  Thirty minutes
are scheduled for this activity.  Due to the diverse learning abilities and needs of the
participants, the last ten minutes are permitted to use notes to review answers.  Our goals
is not to test knowledge but to prepare the learners for recognizing a potentially
dangerous situation.  A score of 80% is required for a student completion card.
 Strategies:  discussion, individual assistance.

Evaluation:  The exploration of outcomes is of great interest.  Outcome questions and
data collection instruments follow.

Exploration of Outcomes

 1. Was knowledge gained due to participation ?
 2. What are the participant's perceptions regarding:
      a. ability to recognize a potential violent situation.
      b. the application of the training and information provided to their work
      and personal lives.
      c. applying new information in new ways.
      d. expectations of training experience.
      e. confidence level to handle a potentially violent situation.

 3. Were the facilitators knowledgeable regarding the subject matter ?

 4. Has participants' behavior changed due to this experience ?


An attempt to measure the perceptions of participants regarding the impact of this training
experience is made.  Immediately following training, a posttest is administered and scored,
and a participant program evaluation is completed. Demographic data  has been collected
at the training, therefore, no further demographic data is needed.    The two CPI
copyrighted instruments are utilized.  A third instrument has been developed , with
stakeholder input,  attempting to measure participants' perceptions of the impact of their
participation, plus explore if behavioral change has taken place.  Field tests with three
individuals of similar status of population was conducted to review usability.

Instruments utilized for feedback:

    Posttest (CPI copyright) to measure knowledge gained
    Participant  evaluation (CPI copyright)
    Participant perception/behavioral change questionnaire (one year after training).


Participant feedback is reviewed and discussed by facilitation team.  Suggestions are
considered and changes have been made in regard to various participant concerns.


______.  1987.  National Crisis Prevention Institute, Instructor's Manual.

______ .  1993.  Michigan State University,  Focus on Michigan's Future:  An Issues
 Identification Process.

David C. Crawford
County Extension Director & Extension Educator, 4-H/Youth Development
Ohio State University Extension, Stark County
2650 Richville Drive SE Suite 100
Massillon, Ohio 44646
330-830-7700 ext. 115 voice
330-830-7720 (FAX)
e-mail: crawford.228@osu.edu
County Web Site: http://stark.osu.edu

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