Spices or Herbs or Seasoning Terms
Spices in addition to combining with food were also presented as gifts of state and collected as precious objects and used as a method of payment and was responsible for the discovery of the New World
Achiote seed (seed called annatto): A musky flavored seed used for flavoring of meat and fish and as a coloring agent for margarine and cheese.
Adobo Seasoning spicy: Mexican blend
Ajowan, Ajwain, Carom, Bishop’s Weed: Stronger than Thyme and less subtle. Used in chutneys, curry, breads, and legumes
Ajwain: See ajowan
Aleppo Pepper (Halaby Pepper): Hot, sun dried, seeded, crushed red chilies used in Mediterranean cooking
Allspice (Pimenta dioica): Evergreen tree and in some
areas called pimento, and the berries smells like a combination of cinnamon (2
parts), cloves (2parts), ginger, and nutmeg (1 part), with peppery overtones.
The seeds are available whole or ground. Jamaican, used in pork, goat, game
dishes, English spiced beef, jerked meat, chicken, pates, terrins,
smoked and canned meat, barbecue sauce, pickled herring, pickling, sauerkraut, pickles, relishes,
soups, marinades, fruit pies, sweets, cakes, puddings, ice cream, pumpkin pie, liquers, and is
often used in European cooking. In
Amchur (Mango Powder): Unripe mangoes, are sun dried and ground which is used in East Indian cooking to give a sour tang to meats, vegetables, and curry
Anise: An annual herb. Anise leaves and seed have a distinctive, sweet licorice flavor. Used in meat, game, or poultry, fish, stews, cakes, breads, cookies, fruit, salads, vegetable, soups, beverages, sweets
Annatto (Bixa orellana): Also see achiote seed. A spice and a dyestuff (seed are bright red) Slightly peppery with a hint of nutmeg and seeds are available whole, block or paste. In food it is used in color confectionery, butter, smoked fish, cheese, shrimp, sweet potato, chicken, pork, stew
Aromatic: Odor (smell) is distinctive and savory, most sweet spices are also aromatic (cinnamon, coriander)
Arrowroot Starch: Thicken for sauces and gravies
Asafetida (asafetida): A giant fennel-like plant with a fetid, garlicky smell and used in many Indian dishes and can and is available in powdered or lump form.
Avocado Leaves: Available whole or toasted and have an anise and hazelnut odor which are used on beans, moles, stews, chicken or fish dishes
Baba Ghanoush (Baba Gannoujh): Puree of eggplant, garlic, olive oil, lemon juice and tahini which is used as a spread or dip for pita bread.
Bacon: Some bacon processors use
Baking Spice: All purpose baking blend
Barbecue Seasoning, American: May contain tomato puree, sugar, chile, red pepper, onions, cloves, allspice, garlic, mustard, and vinegar. Used for grilling meat
Basil: Biennial herb which is America’s most popular, used in chicken, beef, lamb, fish, stuffing, tomato sauces, eggs, breads, legumes, potatoes, salads and salad dressing, soups, stews, tomatoes, and vegetables
Bavarian Seasoning: Use on pork, lamb or veal chops
Bay Leaf Seasoning: Use in beef, chicken, fish, lamb, soups, tomatoes, mashed potatoes, rice, and meat
Bay Leaves (Laurus nobilis): Leaf of the bay laurel tree available fresh, dried, whole, crushed, or ground. Turkish, is superior. Used in bouquets, garnish, fish, meat, pickled meats, poultry, salad dressing, sauces, and as a pickling spice
Beef Roast Seasoning: Used on beef roast, hamburgers, steaks, turkey, and in stew
Beef Stick: See Summer sausage
Bell Peppers: Freeze-dried red, green and mixed
(Gram Flour): Flour made from
Bishop’s Weed: See Ajowan
Black and Red Spice: Combination of black pepper and cayenne
Black Cumin (kali jeera, Imperial Cumin): Smaller and sweeter than regular
cumin and preferred in
Black-Eyed Peas: White kidney shaped beans with a black “eye” are available dried or canned.
Black Pepper (Piper nigrum): Dried unripe berry (fruit, peppercorn). Aromatic, pungent, fiery, hot mouth sensation (heat), used for its pungent flavor; enzymes contained in pepper may cause oxidation of oils. Used in beef, lamb, chicken, potatoes, soups, cheese, pickles, relishes, spiced meats and vegetables, salad dressing, and eggs. If used in sausage, 2 oz minimum and usually 8-16 oz maximum per 100 pounds. Hotness scale – 8
Borage: Flowers and leaves of a herb with a flavor of cucumber, used in salads, and leaves are used to flavor teas and vegetables
Bouillon: Animal or vegetable proteins hydrolyzed by hydrochloric acid and neutralized with sodium carbonate to form sodium chloride which were concentrated with yeast residues from distilleries, monosodium glutamate, hydrogenated fats, powdered milk, lactose, celery, onion, carrot, turmeric, and flavors. Today they consist mainly of blends of the basic types:
1. Bouillons with strong, aromatic, vegetable flavor, which are used in
2. Lean beef bouillons with meat and vegetable flavor.
3. Fat beef bouillons with meat and vegetable flavor.
4. Mixed flavor bouillons, spiced and seasoned for use with or without tomatoes.
5. Chicken bouillons
Bouquet Garni: Herb blend used in soups, stews and on poultry
Braunschweiger: See Liverwurst
Brine Systems: Function is to distribute flavors and functional ingredients throughout or into product: Typical ingredients include salt, phosphate, starches, carrageenan, and flavors. Dry ingredients should have a fine particle size and be water dispersible. Liquid ingredients must be water dispersible with oils emulsifiers. Adjust ingredient levels to different pump levels.
Brown Sauce: Made from brown roux, flour, stock or bouillon, seasoning, sometimes wine, and Worcestershire can be added. Used on broiled chicken, roast, steaks, and pork
B’steeya (Bastela, Bastila, Bisteeya): Phyllo pastry filled with chicken, almonds and spices. The “pie” is baked, then sprinkled with confectioners’ sugar and cinnamon.
Burnet: Several herbs with a cucumber fragrance and used in salads and with vegetables
Cajun Style Seasoning: Used in
Cajun Very Hot Seasoning: Same flavor as regular Cajun with the addition of hot green pepper
Cake Spice: Used in cake, French toast and waffles
Canadian bacon: Some processors
Caraway Seed: Biennial herb use in rye bread, cakes, cookies, cheese, cabbage dishes, pork, fish, stews, cheese, potatoes, salads and salad dressing, baked items, fruit, coleslaw, and sauerkraut
Cardamom: An aromatic dessert spice of the ginger family with a pungent odor and a warm, spicy, sweet flavor, used in the west and as a curry spice in the east. Used in bread, potatoes, salad and salad dressing, and sweets
Carom: See Ajowan
Cassia (Cinnamomum cassia, Chinese cinnamon): Aromatic bark similar to cinnamon but darker, thicker, coarser and less expensive. Available as stick (rolled from both sides to center), and ground. Buds resemble cloves and they are unripe fruit that has been dired. Used for strong spicy dishes, stewed fruit, pudding spice, pastery spice, mulling spice, curries, pilaus, spicy meat and is in Chinese five-spice
Celery Flakes: Freeze dried to preserve freshness. Use in potato salad, meat sauces
Celery Salt: Used in Bloody Mary’s, roasts and meatloaf
Celery Seed: Use for beef, pork roast, fish, beef stew, cheese, potatoes, salad and salad dressing, tomato, cole slaw, salad dressing, and pickles
Cellophane Noodles (Bean thread, Chinese Vermicelli, Glass Noodles and Harusame):
Translucent threads made from the starch of the green mung bean. Available dried, they must be soaked in water before using in most dishes, except soups. They can also be deep-fried.
Chana Dhal: Round split yellow lentil, can be used as a substitute for moong dhal and yellow split pea, and is used as a binding agent
Chapati (ata) flour: Whole-wheat flour used to make breads.
Chervil (Cicily, Sweet Cicily, Cheese Seasonings): Delicately-flavored annual parsley herb with anise flavor. It is one of the main ingredients in “fines herbs” and used in fish, eggs, vegetables, cheese, potatoes, soups, salads and salad dressing
Chili Pepper: Over 200 varieties, varying in length from a 1/4-inch to 12 inches and in shape from long and narrow to plump and round. Their heat varies from mildly warm to fiery hot. A chile’s color can be green, yellow, red or black. Generally the larger the milder. Seeds and membranes contain most of the chile’s capsaicin (heat), the oil. Sweet, pungent, slightly burnt flavor; is cooked to darken it and give it a cooked (burnt) flavor associated with Tex-Mex products. Also used in cheese, eggs, fish, chicken, beef, beans, tomatoes, soups, and vegetables. If used in sausage 8 oz. minimum and 16 oz. maximum per 100 pounds
Chili Powder: Use in cheese, chili, and baked fish
Chilies Rellenos: Cheese-stuffed, battered covered, mild green chilies, and are fried
Chinese 5 Spice Powder: Oriental style blend used in stir fry and fruit
Chives: Perennial herb with an onion like flavor. Used in fish, fish salads, dips, spreads, cheese, scrambled eggs, soufflés, omelets, casseroles, salads, on onion and cheese soup, scrambled eggs, vegetables, yams, in sour cream for baked potatoes, sprinkle on hors d’oeuvres and chive butter for meat.
Cilantro: Used in Mexican and Oriental type dishes, and beef
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia or zeylanicum): Inner bark of evergreen tree and is a sweet and aromatic spice. Used in lamb, chicken, bread, pickles, relishes, pickled meats and seafood, spiced fruit, fruit deserts, dessert dishes, cakes, sweets, milk and rice pudding, chocolate dishes, tomato, curries, pilaqus, wines, creams, syrups, and brewed as a tea
Cinnamon Sugar: Used on toast, waffles or in coffee
Clove (Eugenia caryophyllus): An immature unopened flower bud of a evergreen that are dried and sometimes ground and which are warm, pungent, astringent, and aromatic. Use in baking, ham, pork, game or in beef and meat dishes, pickles, relishes, ham, and spiced fruits. Also used in bouillons, stocks, soups, curry powder, rice, mulling and pickling spices, Worcestershrise sauce, fruit, andsweets
Cocoa Powder: Dutch is used for hot chocolate, natural is used for baking
Compounded Flavors: Developed by combining specific ingredients in a certain ratio to achieve a desired product.
Coriander (Corindrum sativum): Seed of a small plant that is warm, mild, sweet, aromatic, rose or flower-like flavored, annual herb. Seeds are dried and available whole or ground. Leaves (cilantro) are used fresh and seeds (smell like a mix of sage and orange) are harvested when heads turn brown. Root is used as a flavor for meats and curries. Light, lemony flavor used in slow cooking dishes or roast, pork, ham, fish, chicken. Can be used as an alternative to nutmeg in some franks and bologna. Also used in curry powder, stews, chili, soups, mortadella, pickling and pudding spices, smoked meats, game, lamb, kid, meat stuffing, and poultry dressing, French salad dressing, cream and cottage cheese,cakes, bread, baked goods, potatoes, English black pudding, cheese, fruit, potatoes. Frequently used in Chinese, Middle Eastern, and Latin American cooking. If used in sausage 1 oz. minimum and 6 oz. maximum per 100 pounds
Corned Beef: Uses garlic.
Corned Beef Spices: Used in beef brisket
Cotto (Salami): In addition to normal salami spicing, cooked salami (see). mustard is also used
Cream of Tartar: Use to stabilize meringue or to clean copper cookware
Cubeb (Piper cubeba): Small red brown seed from a climbing perennial vine of a cardamom-like plant which is peppery, aromatic and slightly bitter, slightly camphorous notes.Used in Indonesian curries, meat, cheese, vegetable, pâtés, sausage, spiced biscuits and has been used as a pepper substitute
Cumin (Cuminum cyminum): Seed of a small umbelliferous plant. Strong, musty (sometimes objectionable), nutty, flavor, sometimes described as a “dirty socks” smell. Available whole, ground, powder, fried or roasted and is used in highly spiced foods, Mexican and Middle East cooking, also used in beef, lamb, chicken, fish, stews, grills, soups, legumes, beans, rice, cheese, bread, cakes. Tex-Mex meat products, sausages, chili powder, chile con carne, and cheese. It is burned with wood to smoke cheese and meats. Pickling ingredient for cabbage and sauerkraut, chutney. If used in sausage 4 oz. minimum and 8 oz maximum per 100 pounds.
Cured Products (Ham, Bacon, Canadian bacon): Some processors use
Curry: Pungent and spicy, although the level of heat (from peppers) varies. Approximately 30 ingredients and different ratios are present in most curry but the basic ingredients are cinnamon, clove buds, ginger, fenugreek, mustard, chili, coriander, turmeric, cumin, and cardamom. Used in beef, chicken, eggs, fish, tomatoes, and vegetables
Curry Leaf: Strong fragrant herb. Select fresh bright green or frozen leaves.
Daikon: A large, white or black skin, white flesh, crisp, Asian radish with a sweet fresh flavor. Is used raw in salads or cooked stir-fry.
Dill: An annual herb used in fish, veal, chicken, lamb, eggs (omelets), dill pickles, cottage cheese, bread, potatoes, salad and salad dressing, sauces, soups, tomatoes, and vegetable casseroles. Leaves are used fresh and seed are harvested when they are slightly brown. Also used in pastries, sauces, sauerkraut dishes, and flavored vinegar
Dill Seed: Used in Northern and Eastern European cooking and in pickles, spiced vegetables, and marinated shrimp
Dill Weed: Feathery, bright green used with white sauces or sprinkled on salads
Dry Sausage: Black pepper for major flavor, and may include garlic, coriander, and nutmeg for other spice flavors.
English Prime Rib Rub: Used on all cuts of beef, Bloody Marys and strong vegetables
Essential Oils: Volatile, odoriferous components found in many plant materials that are normally obtained through steam distillation. Most essential oils are hydrocarbons (terpenes, sequiterpenes), oxygenated compounds (alcohol, esters, aldehydes, keytones) and nonvolatile residues (waxes, paraffins) and are only part of the spice profile and are deficient in heat, sweetness, bitterness and other flavor components. They are microbiologically clean and can be standardized for strength and flavor profile
Fajita Seasoning: Used on fajita, tacos and other meats
Fennel, Common (Foeniculum vulgare): Tender perennial herb in which the leaves are used fresh and the seeds (whole or ground) are harvested when they turn brown. Has a warm, aromatic, sweet, licorice or anis-like flavor and is used in French and Italian cooking on fish, fish sauce, mayonnaise cheese spreads and vegetable dishes, pizza and in tomato sauces and Italian sausage, pepperoni, and other Italian-flavored meats, pork roast, sausage and drinks. Leaves and stems used much like celery. Also used in chicken, salad and salad dressing, eggs, soups, bread, cakes, sweets, and tomatoes. Is an ingredient in Chinese 5 spices, curry powder, and liquors. If used in sausage 3 oz. minimum and 12 oz. maximum per 100 pounds
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum): Small seed from a bean like plant. When roasted it has a warm, penetrating, pungent, aromatic, bittersweet, burnt sugar, maple syrup with a bitter aftertaste. Used in curry, chutneys and rich vegetarian stews. Leaves are available fresh and dried and are used in meat curries. Used in meat, curries and Indian dishes, fish, salads, chutneys, pickles, vegetables, bread, coffee, and tea. Also used in mango chutneys, and imitation maple syrup
Fines Herbs: A mixture of very finely chopped chervil, chives, parsley tarragon, marjoram, savory, burnet or watercress. Used in egg dishes, quiche and white meats, and fish
five-spice powder (Chinese five-spice): Blend of cinnamon, cloves, fennel, szechwan peppers and ginger. Use in water, wine, stir-fry, and fruit desserts.
Flavor Perception: Taste is perceived by the tongue in four areas
Sweetness in the tip of tongue
Saltiness in the front side of tongue
Sour in the rear side of tongue
Bitterness across rear of tongue
Flavors: Products whose significant function in food is for flavoring [smoke, roast (may be added directly to the product to either enhance or replace a processing step), HVP, yeast, meaty flavors, etc.].rather than for nutritional value. Made fade over time depending on storage conditions.
Florence Fennel (Finocchio): Base and stems can be used raw in salads or cook in soup. Greens can be used like dill. Seeds are available whole and ground and are used in food and drinks.
Fox Point Seasoning: Blend used in dips, eggs, and chicken salad
Franks: See hot dogs
Fresh Pork Sausage: Black pepper and sage are dominate flavors, with red pepper used for “hot” varieties. Dextrose is added to obtain surface browning
Garam Masala (Hot Spices): Blend of several strongly aromatic spices used in Indian dishes or as a garnish.
Garlic: Strong odor, pungent and hearty flavor; used in Italian, Chinese, French and American cooking and in lamb, beef, beef franks, Polish sausage, chicken, fish, salads and salad dressing, soups, tomatoes, breads, cheese. If used in sausage 3/4 oz. minimum and 2 oz. maximum per 100 pounds.
Garlic Salt: Used on pasta and garlic bread
Ginger (Gingerroot, Zingiber officinale): Gnarlad rhizome available as fresh whole raw root, hand (piece of rhizome), dried root (skin on or off), whole or sliced, powdered , preserved or stem (young roots peeled, sliced, cooked in heavy sugar syrup, crystallized (cooked in syrup, air dried and rolled in sugar), and pickled (sliced thin in vinegar). It is warm, peppery, sweet, pungent, spicy, and fiery. Used in chicken, fish, meat, eggs, fruit, salads, sweets, tomatoes, pickles, pickled meats, relishes, chutneys, curry, cakes, biscuits, ginger snaps, ginger bread, puddings, jams, preserves, ginger beer, ginger wine and tea. If used in sausage 1/16 oz. minimum and 1/2 oz. maximum per 100 pounds
Golden Needles: Delicate dried golden buds of the tiger lily which has a pungent-sweet flavor for use as a vegetable and garnish for stir-fried dishes.
Goma: Sesame seed; Shiro goma - unhulled white sesame seed; muki goma - hulled white seed; and kuro goma - black sesame seed; and Goma abura - sesame seed oil
Grains of Paradise (Guinea Pepper, Melegueta Pepper): Related to cardamom, but the flavor is very peppery. Used in West African cooking
Gravies: Juices of meats, fish, poultry, and vegetables with the addition of spices and herbs. They are used to improve the appearance, protect from moisture loss during freezing and frozen storage, and rancidity
Greek Seasoning: Used in salad dressing and gyro sauce
Green Pepper (Piper nigrum): Same as the black pepper except harvested before mature. It is milder and has a cleaner, fresher flavor. Can be reconstituted for mashing by soaking in water. Can be mixed with garlic, cinnamon for a spiced butter or with cream to make a fish sauce. Hotness scale - 3
Ground Black Pepper: Available in a wide variety of grind sizes
Ground White Pepper: Used in European and Southeast Asian cooking
Gumbo File (powdered sassafras): Used in Cajun and Creole cooking
Ham: Some processors use
Harissa sauce: Hot chili sauce made from a mixture of dried red chilies, garlic, caraway, coriander, cumin, mint and oil. Used as a table condiment or in cooking, vegetable or meat
Herb Butter: Mix 4 tablespoon of dried herb, a dash of lemon with ¼ pound of soften butter, store at refrigerated temperature in a covered container
Herb Mustard: Mix 8 tablespoons of dry mustard, 4 tablespoon of herb, 8 tablespoon of salt, teaspoon of sugar, and enough vinegar to make a paste
Herbs: Food seasonings for cooking and preservation derived from plants from temperate zone origin. May be made from seeds, fruits (berries), leaves, bark, blossoms, stems, roots, bulbs, or tubers.
Herbs de Provence: Blend with lavender used for Cornish hens and pork tenderloin
Herbs Drying: Harvest when flower buds first appear. Cut, wash and dry, place in a brown paper bag with stems extending out the opening and hang in a dark warm (70-80º F) place for 2 to 4 weeks, store in airtight jars in a cool dry place
Herb Vinegar: Place herbs in a jar and cover with white vinegar and secure with a tight lid, store in a cool dark place. After 4-6 weeks pour off and cap
Hollandaise Sauce: Contains egg yolk, butter and lemon and is used on vegetables (poached, or steamed) or boiled fish and eggs Benedict.
Honey: In addition to sweetness flavors can vary depending on the flowers on which the bees feed such as lavender, rose, linden, clover, and many more.
Horseradish: Used on boiled beef, fish, spare ribs and in cheese, salad and salad dressing
Horseradish Dip: Used as a tangy vegetable and chip dip
Horseradish Powder: Used on prime rib
Hot Dogs (Franks): Primary spices are black pepper and nutmeg. Some may have a coriander flavor. Secondary flavor for beef dogs is typically garlic. Secondary flavor in many chicken hot dogs is onion. Mustard is heavily used in most hot dogs as is smoke. Hot dogs are eaten warm and therefore require less flavor (spices) than bologna.
Hungarian Wax Chile (Banana Chiles): Large yellow chile (4” to 6” long) that has a flavor from mild to medium-hot and with a distinctly waxy flavor
Imitation Bacon Pieces: Made from vegetable protein with a bacon or hickory smoked flavor added and are used as a garnish, sprinkled on potatoes, omelets, casseroles, scrambled eggs, in sandwich fillings, dips and canapés, on curries, sauces, soups, stews or rice, on green salads and vegetables, and in baked goods,
Italian Herb Mix: Used in most Italian dishes
Italian Sausage: Black pepper and fennel (licorice flavor) are the promenading flavors with red pepper added for hot varieties
Juniper Berries: Tart flavor which reduces the powerful wild flavors. Use on venison, wild buffalo, wild boar, pork, pheasant, sauerbraten, rabbit, and stuffing for poultry. The distilled oil is used to flavor some gins
Kaffir lime leaves: Citrus flavor and is used with coconut milk, with hot chili spices, and fish
Kebsa Spice: Spice blend of cardamom, cinnamon, cumin, cloves, nutmeg, coriander, loomi, red and black pepper.
Kielbasa: See Polish Sausage
Lamb Seasoning: Blend used for lamb dishes
Lavender: Perennial herb whose flower spikes are used for color and fragrance in sachets, perfumes, and potpourris
Lemon: A citrus fruit with high acidity and tangy strong flavor and makes a thirst-quenching beverage. It is incorporated in cocktails, blended juices and hot and iced tea, and is added to mayonnaise, canned tomato juice, prunes, pickling, sauces, soufflés, marinades, puddings, pie, cake, meat, most seafood and shellfish, poultry, soups, casseroles, and vegetables. It will also keep many foods from discoloration due to oxidation
Lemon Grass (Cymbopogon ciatrus, Citronella, Sereh): Herb which is a tall tropical grass that has a scallion-like base and is available fresh (preferred) and dried in the form of chopped, in slices, cut and sifted, powdered or as an oil. Its flavor is lemony with a hint of ginger. It is used in Southeast Asian cooking. Also used in meat, poultry, seafood, chicken, tomatoes, pickles, and marinades
Lemon Peel: Outer peel (zest) is used in fish, muffins, cookies, breads, cheese, eggs, salad and salad dressing, sweets, and powdered for cheesecake
Lentil: Small oval pulse (European - seed coat on, a gray-brown exterior and cream colored interior; Egyptian or Red Lentil - smaller and rounder - orange-red color without the seed coat; yellow) and the Yellow Lentil. All are dried after ripening.
Liverwurst (Braunschweiger): Onion and nutmeg provide spice flavor, and smoked bacon provides additional flavor, particularly to braunschweiger. The sweet flavor of nonfat dry milk is desirable
Loomi (Dried Limes, Leimoon Basra, Leimoon Aswad and Leimoon Omani): The resulting spice when ripe limes are boiled in salt water and sun-dried until their interior becomes dark which is used to impart a citrus odor and a sour tang to legumes and meat dishes, to flavor rice. Available in powdered form or whole.
Lovage: Perennial herb whose celery-flavored leaves are used fresh in meat, soups, stews, potato salads, vegetables
Mace (Mace Blades when dry): Bright red arils inside the shell and surrounds the nutmeg. Warm, sweet (sweeter and with a stronger flavor and lighter color than nutmeg), aromatic, and pungent spice. Used in vegetables, egg dishes, milk puddings and custards; eggnogs and mulled drinks; or use as a flavoring in desserts, sweets, and also used with franks (hot dogs) and bologna
Maillard Reaction: Condensation of amino groups (derived from protein sources such as meat products and vegetable proteins) with reducing sugars (are glucose, fructose, maltose, sucrose and xylose). Conditions that are controlled during the reaction are substrate concentration, pH, temperature, water activity, time and catalysts.
Mango Powder: See Amchur
Marinade Systems: Function is to distribute flavors and functional ingredients throughout or into product: Typical ingredients include salt, phosphate, starches, carrageenan, and flavors. Dry ingredients should have a fine particle size and be water dispersible. Liquid ingredients must be water dispersible with oils emulsifiers will need to be used. Adjust ingredient levels to different pump levels.
Marjoram: Annual herb used fresh, dried or frozen in Polish, Italian, French and Mexican cooking. Also used in chicken, beef, lamb, fish, cheese, eggs dishes, potatoes salads and salad dressing, stuffings, soups, tomatoes, vegetables (green beans)
Mayonnaise: Creamy, thick emulsion containing vinegar or lemon juice, salad oil, egg yolk, and seasoning such as salt and mustard and water.
Mexican oregano: Stronger, more anise flavor than the European type. It is very aromatic and sweet smelling, combining well with chiles, cilantro and epazote
Mint: Perennial herb such as Spearmint and Peppermint, both used in teas or other beverages, and candy. Also used in fish, lamb, lamb sauces, cheese, fruits, jellies, salad and salad dressing, and sweets
Molcajete and Tejolote: A Mexican black basalt mortar used for grinding chilies and sauces. Tejolote is the pestle.
Monosodium Glutamate: Flavor enhancer used in Chinese cooking. Some people are sensitive.
Mulled Wine Spices: Used in cider or potpourri
Mung Bean: A small green but sometimes yellow or black dried bean with yellow flesh. Used to grow bean sprouts. Can be ground into flour, which is used to make noodles or other dishes
Mushrooms: Available as white or beige, fresh, canned, frozen, or dried sliced or chopped for meats, stuffing, in appetizers, fowl, seafood, sauces, soups, stuffing, fish dishes, stew, veal parmesan, spaghetti, salads, garnishes, sandwiches, cheese, egg, and vegetables
Mustard: Sharp, fiery, slightly bitter flavor. Oriental Mustard is very pungent. Allylisothiocyanate gives Oriental Mustard its pungency, sharp odor and acrid flavor. The seed itself has no aroma.Types available:
A. White (Yellow) Mustard (Brassica alba or B. hirta): It has a mild flavor and good preservative qualities. This is the one that is most commonly used in ballpark mustard and in pickling. Used in meat and seafood, sauerkraut, garnish, many Indian dishes, mayonnaise, salad dressing, barbecue sauces, baked beans, deviled eggs, beets and succotash. American ballpark-style is blended with sugar, vinegar and colored with turmeric. English is mixed with wheat flour and colored with tumeric. English is mixed with wheat flour and colored with turmeric.
B. Black (Brown
C. Brown (Indian) Mustard (B. juncea): More pungent than white, less than black. Used in fish, beef, pork, chicken, fish, lamb, cheese, salad and salad dressing. If heat treated it has no flavor but is 28% protein. If used in sausage 1/2 oz. minimum and 1% maximum per 100 pounds
Mustard Powder: Eight parts mustard to 7 parts liquid
Mustard Seed: Three varieties, is usually preferred over powder in barbecue sauces, marinades and rubs
Natural Whole and Ground Spices, Herbs: Seeds, fruits, etc., that are not processed beyond drying, cleaning, grading, grinding, chopping and dicing. Contain a full compliment of flavor as well as add color and appearance which is sometimes essential for customer appeal to products. Particle size determines the release and distribution of flavor. Whole spices are not soluble in brine solutions.
Nigella Seeds (Black Onion Seeds, Kalongi): Tiny black seeds with a nutty, slightly bitter, peppery flavor. Usually fried or dry roasted. Used as a seasoning for vegetables (eggplant, pumpkin) and breads.
Non-enzymatic Browning Flavors: Condensation of amino groups (derived from protein sources such as meat products and vegetable proteins) with reducing sugars (glucose, fructose, maltose, sucrose and xylose). Conditions that are controlled during the reaction are substrate concentration, pH, temperature, water activity, time and catalysts
Northwoods: Rosemary-paprika are used with chicken and fish
Northwoods Fire Seasoning: Northwoods with smoke
Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans): Sweet and pungent spice obtained from a large evergreen which produces two spices, mace (lacy aril), and nutmeg (seed surrounded by lacy aril). Available whole or ground. The flavor slightly sweet, aromatic nutty warm and is most associated with franks (hot dogs), bologna, mortadella, Scottish haggis and lamb; has a weaker flavor and darker color than mace. Also used in sweet spicy dishes such as pies, puddings, custards, cookies and spice cakes. Also mixed with cheese, soufflés and cheese sauce, soups, tomato, slit pea, chicken, black beans, egg dishes, vegetables, cabbage, spinach, broccoli, onions, eggplant, eggnog, mulled wines and punches. If used in sausage 1/4 oz. minimum and 2 oz. maximum per 100 pounds. One grated whole nutmeg = 2-3 teaspoons of ground nutmeg
Nuts: Use whole, cut, broken, ground, raw or roasted and are often used as a garnish. Common nuts can be substituted with the exception of chestnuts, coconuts, and black walnuts. Sweetened coconut can be grated or shredded and toasted or untoasted, and is used on poultry, on salads, in sauces and Oriental dishes. Chestnuts are starchy and have a texture similar to a potato. Each type of nut will add its own flavor. Salted nuts should not be used as food garnishes. Black walnuts can be used as a primary food flavoring and should be applied raw, never roasted. To extend nut flavor in foods, use small pieces or slices. Flavor is enhanced with brown sugar or by adding a small amount of maple syrup or almond flavor. Use toasted nuts for creamed or saucy meat dishes, poultry, seafood or tossed vegetables, and jellied salads,
Oleoresins: Prepared from spices or herbs by extraction, using organic solvents and contain both the volatile portion of the spice (essential oil) and the non-volatile extract which includes resins therefor are considered more complete than essential oils and are considered to be a better replacement for whole spices. They are microbiologically clean and can be standardized for strength and flavor profile. Food grade emulsifiers can be added to oleoresins to make them water soluble or can be placed on soluble carriers such as salt, dextrose, flour or yeast to produce a dry soluble product.
Onion (Allium cepa): Available sliced, minced, minced toasted, or caramelized by sautéing, and is the base sauces or stocks and gravies. Enzymes contained may cause oxidation of oils.
Onion Powder: Onion flavor in powder form
Onion Salt: Used on roasts
Orange-Blossom Water: Available in bottled form and is distilled from the petals and used in perfume desserts
Orange Peel: Used in coffee cake, breads, waffle batter or as a sprinkle for cereal or potpourri. Used in sweets
Oregano (Wild marjoram, Origanum vulgare): Bold and gutsy flavor. Available as Turkish (Greek) oregano which is used in European cooking and Mexican (usually stronger) oregano for Mexican cooking. Available fresh and dried. Also used in cheese, breads, eggs, lamb, beef, fish, poultry, beans, potatoes, salad and salad dressing, Italian sauces, tomatoes, and in pizza
Paprika (Capsicum annuum): Sweet flavor but offers no flavor to meat products except at very high levels; often used for its red color Available as Hungarian Paprika which has the best flavor and California has the best color for meat use. Used in baked fish, chicken, pork, processed meats or sausages, veal, cheese, eggs, potatoes, tomato sauces, chili powders, soups, salad dressings, casseroles, cottage cheese, soups, salads, cheese, and dips. If used in sausages 8 oz. minimum and12 oz. maximum per 100 pounds
Parisien Bonnes Herbs: All purpose blend
Parsley (Allium sativum): Biennial herb that is used fresh on eggs, fish, veal, beef, lamb, cheese, chicken, beans, potatoes, salad and salad dressing, soups (garnish), tomatoes, vegetables, and legumes. Available fresh or dried. 12 pounds fresh = 1 pound dried
Pasta Sprinkle: Blend used in pasta, grilled chicken and vegetables
Pepitas: Pumpkin seeds used in Mexican cooking. Available salted, roasted, raw, and with or without hulls. With the white hull removed, they are a medium-dark green and have a delicate flavor, which can be improved when the seeds are roasted and salted.
Pepper (Piper nigrum): See black pepper, white pepper, green pepper, pink pepper, or peppercorns. Available in whole (best), ground (freshly ground is better), cracked (partially broken), crushed (mortar and pestle). Used in beef, fish, chicken, eggs, soups, cheese, beans
Peppercorn (Piper nigrum):
Pepperoncini (Uscan Peppers): Thin, 2” to 3” chilies with a red, wrinkled skin. They have a slightly sweet flavor which is from medium to medium-hot.
Pepperoni (Sausage for Pizza): Contains paprika, red pepper, black pepper, garlic, and fennel
Pickling Spice: Traditional blend for pickling
Pimiento; Pimento (Pepper): A large, sweet, red, heart-shaped bell pepper that measures 3 to 4 inches long. It is more aromatic than that of the red bell pepper. Canned and bottled pimientos (halves, strips or pieces) and are the red stuffing found in green olives. Used for paprika. Pimento is also the name of the tree that produces allspice
Pineapple: Use for texture, flavor and aroma in or with salads, souffles, as tidbits, broiled or sautéed with meat, and in Oriental dishes. Adds texture, flavor and aroma.
Pink Pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius): Is not a vinous pepper and has pink peppercorns. Used in poultry, fish, and vegetables
Pizza Seasoning: Used for pizzas and pizza sausage
Polish Sausage (Kielbasa): Same as smoked sausage (see), except more garlic is used
Poppy Seed: Available as Holland Blue which is used in baking and White which is used in Indian cooking. Also used in breads, potatoes, noodle, pudding, and cheese
Pork Chop Seasoning: Smoky blend with garlic and is used on pork, burgers and turkey
Potpourri: A mixture of dried herbs and flower petals. Mix 4-6 cups of various dried petals and leaves, add table spoon of whole cloves, cinnamon or ginger, add 1 oz of a fixative (calamus root, benzoin or orris root), stored 4-5 weeks in well closed jars and shake occasionally.
Poultry Seasoning: Used in poultry stuffing
Processed Flavors: Combining specific ingredients in a certain ratio, and then reacting them together under controlled conditions (temperature, pH) in order to achieve a desired product.
Pungent: Strong sharp flavor
Pumpkin Pie Spice: Used in pumpkin pie, zucchini bread and carrot cake
Ras El Hanout (Best): Mixture contains at least 12 ingredients, but often as many as 50. Spices include: cumin, ginger, black pepper, cinnamon, cayenne, allspice and cloves, rarer monk’s pepper, xylopia pods, grains of paradise and rose petals. For some occasions, the mixture may include hashish or aphrodisiacs like Spanish fly beetle.
Red pepper: Pungent, biting hot flavor, used for its throat sensation (heat). which is not detected in the front of the mouth. small amount will make a seasoned product seem to have more flavor and commonly used in crushed form to aid visual appearance. If used in sausage red 1/2 oz. minimum and 4-6 oz. maximum per 100 pounds
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis): Tender perennial which can be used fresh or dried and has a minty sweet herb flavor and is used with meats, chicken, and tomato soup. Also used on beef, chicken, fish, lamb, potatoes, salad and dressing, soups, sweets, tomatoes, breads, lamb and legumes
Rose Water: Essence distilled from rose petals, sold bottled and used principally to perfume desserts
Roux: Combination of fat, margarine or butter, and flour which is used for thickening
Rubs, Tropical: Functions is to add color [browning agents such as maillose, dextrose, caramel, paprika (may fade with exposure to light), turmeric, annatto, vegetate blends, usually plated on salt and/or maltodextran], enhance visual appearance, and add distinctive flavor characteristics to meat products [Green and Red Bell Peppers, Jalapeno, Celery, Minced Onion, Cracked Black Pepper, Whole Herbs (Parsley Basil, Oregano, Rosemary)]. May be used alone or in conjunction with brine systems. Bulking ingredients may include corn syrup and dairy solids (buttermilk solids). Coverage typical for meat products is 2 to 5%
Saffron: Yellow-orange stigma of flowering purple crocus, the most expensive spice. Each flower has only three stigmas which must be hand-picked and dried. It takes 14,000 stigmas for a single ounce of saffron. Has a flowery, pungent almost bitter flavor and a deep red color. Used on fish, chicken, fish, bread, soups, stews, salad dressing, sauces, Spanish-type casseroles, and rice
Sage: Perennial herb used fresh or dried with a bitter flavor and an aromatic aroma used in some fresh pork sausage, on meat, turkey, chicken, poultry stuffing, cheese, fish, pork, eggs, soups, salads, and legumes. If used in sausage 1/2 oz. minimum and 2 oz. maximum per 100 pounds.
Salad Dressing (Vinaigrette): May contain wine vinegar, oil, herbs salt, pepper and mustard. Some variations contain, paprika, pickle, relish, cheese, horseradish, sugar, and other ingredients
Salami (Cotto): Black pepper, in the form of whole peppercorns, creates flavor of cotto (cooked) salami. Nutmeg is used at low levels. Mustard is heavily used in cotto salami
Salt (Sodium Chloride, NaCl) Used to flavor food and retard bacterial growth, reduce canning time, tenderize meat, increase water binding of meat, extract proteins in meat, reduce chilling temperature and raise boiling temperature in liquids. Other salts used in food would include potassium chloride, calcium chloride, magnesium chloride. XXX is purest type. In cured meat 1% minimum and 2.5% usual maximum on a weight basis
Sansho: Mildly hot Japanese seasoning made from the dried and powdered berries of the prickly ash tree. It’s from the same berry that the Chinese call Szechwan Pepper
Santa Fe Grande
Saté; Satay: Small marinated cubes of meat threaded on skewers and grilled or broiled usually served with a spicy peanut sauce
Sauce: Basic ingredients are fish, poultry or vegetables. Combinations vary from simple to complex and range from mild to strong and from thin to thick, from white to yellow to to brown to red to green. They are the foundation to cooking and are used to add appeal and flavor
Sausage for Pizza: See Pepperoni
Savory: Flavor is between mint and thyme with a touch of pepper used in beef, chicken, fish, lamb, bean, soups, tomatoes, and vegetables
Savory, Summer: An annual herb available fresh or dried and used to flavor beans, vinegar, soup, stuffing and rice
Scoville Units: The measurement of capsaicin level (the oil that makes chilies hot).The hottest pepper are the habañero/Scotch bonnet. Habañeros are rated at 100,000 to 350,000 Scoville units. By contrast, the Serrano measures about 5,000 to 15,000 Scoville units.
Sesame Seed: Available toasted or flaked and “White” for breads and rolls and “Black” for Oriental cooking used as seasonings, breading mixes, sprinkle on casseroles, mix with nuts for fish.
Shallots: Sweeter garlic/onion flavor used in French cooking for meats, and eggs
Shrimp/Crab Boil: Used for all seafood boils
Smoked sausage: A “simple” seasoned product with black pepper as the major spice, red pepper is used at very low levels. Coriander is sometimes incorporated. Smoke and the sweet burnt flavor of dextrose are the major flavors.
Soup Bases: Available as beef, chicken, ham, pork, seafood and turkey bases
Spearmint: Used in Mediterranean dishes and in mint tea
Spices: Tropical aromatics seasonings for cooking and preservation derived from plants and added to food. May be made from seeds, fruits (berries), leaves, bark, blossoms, stems, roots, bulbs, or tubers. Subject to seasonal variation in flavor, quality and quantity. May be a source of spoilage organisms if not sterilized. Whole and ground spices are best used when appearance is important.
Southwest Seasoning: Spicy, smoky chipotle pepper blend used in Mexican dirty rice
Star Anise: Dried, star-shaped, dark brown fruit pod that contains a pea-sized seed in each of its eight segments and grows on small evergreen trees. It has smoky, licorice flavor used in Chinese braised dishes and Malaysian curries. Tart, red-purple, berries from a bush are used in Arabic cooking. Used in chicken, fish, salad, soups, sweets, onions, and salad dressing, marinades, kebabs, vegetable and chicken casseroles, soups, sweets and yogurt. Available whole and is used in teas and broken for picking and in dried or crushed to a course powder which is aromatic, sour, fruity flavor and is astringent.
Storage of spices and herbs: Under good conditions;
Whole spices and herbs
Leaves and flowers – 1 year
Seed and barks – over 2 years
Roots – over 2 years
Ground spices and herbs
Leaves – 6 months
Seed and barks – 6 months
Roots – 1 year
Sugar: Cane and beet sugar are chemically the same. Contribute to sweetness, flavor, energy, color on cooking, at high levels retard bacterial growth in food., at low levels encourages bacterial growth, promotes reducing conditions, and reduces harshness of salt. Available as brown which is unrefined, white or granulated or powdered is refined, liquid refined or unrefined is syrup. Classification are single sugars such as glucose (dextrose, blood sugar, corn sugar), galactose, mannose, and fructose (levulose, fruit sugar), double sugars such as sucrose (glucose+fructose), maltose (glucose+glucose) and lactose (glucose+galactose) or milk sugar. Types are sucrose, glucose (dextrose), corn syrup solids, corn syrup, glucose syrup, malt syrup, invert sugar (an equal mixture of glucose and fructose), honey (65-80% invert sugar), maple syrup is sucrose or invert sugar and dried milk (45-58% lactose). Browning dextrose, corn syrup solids; non-browning cane or beet sugar, artificial sweeteners. Artificial sweeteners would include saccharin, asparatame, calcium cyclamate, sodium cyclamate, sorbitol. DE is sweetness compared to dextrose.
Sumac (Sumaq): Tart, red-purple
spice is ground from the berries of the sumac shrub. Sumac is used in
Summer sausage (beef stick): Black pepper for flavor and mustard seed
Sweet Pepper Fakes: Used in relishes, salads, stewed tomatoes, dressing, and sauces
Szechwan Pepper (Pimpinella anisum, Sansho,
scale – 3
Tajeen: A braised or stewed meat from
Tamarind: The pulp of pods, which is the fruit of large trees, is dried and concentrated and used to add a fruity sourness to dishes and is an ingredient in Worcestershire sauce.
Tandoori: Spices in paste form is rubbed onto the surface of meats and the powder is often used as a marinade. It colors the food red-orange. A rounded-top tandoor oven is made of brick and clay and is used to bake foods over direct heat. Naan bread is baked by attaching the dough directly on the ovens walls. Tandoori meat is cooked on skewers.
Tarragon: Robust flavor is used for baked chicken or Cornish hen, beef, fish, lamb, cheese, eggs, fish, potatoes, salad and salad dressing, tomatoes, herb vinegar, and sauces
Tarragon, French: Perennial herb available in vinegar or dried and used in sauces (tartar, white) and for herb vinegar
Tartar Sauce: Contains mayonnaise, relishes or pickles, onions, caspers and herbs and is used on seafood
Tex-Mex Products: Pepper, chili pepper, cumin, and garlic at greater usage levels than traditional products.
Thyme: Perennial herb available fresh, dried or frozen. Used as a cooking herb and used for poultry, pork, beef, lamb, clam chowder, oyster stew, cheese, egg dishes, fish, bean, bread, potatoes, salads and salad dressing, soups, sauces, tomatoes, and vegetables
Toasting or Dry Roasting: Heat a heavy skillet over medium heat until hot. Add spices, stirring constantly for 2 to 5 minutes until fragrant and slightly brown, remove from heat
Tofu (Soybean Curd): Texture is smooth, little flavor, creamy, but sliceable. Made from curdled soy milk which is drained and pressed and the firmness depends on how much whey was removed.
Togarashi (Ichimi): A small, hot, red chile available fresh and dried.
Tomato Chutney: Is prepared from tomato concentrate and pulp, sugar, water, vinegar, onion, salt, spices (coriander, cayenne pepper, cinnamon, cardamom, pimento, celery), and also with the addition of essential oils (garlic, clove bud, etc.).
Tomato Ketchup: Prepared with tomato concentrate, sugar, water, vinegar, onion, salt, tragacanth gum, and spices including; nutmeg, cardamom, cinnamon, clove buds, and coriander. Used for flavoring meat including sausages, macaroni, spaghetti, rice, and vegetables
Tomato Sauce: In addition to tomatoes may contain vegetables such as diced carrots, celery, onions, meat such as ham or bacon bits, butter, olive oil, flour stock, paste, canned or puree tomatoes, and seasoning such as thyme, bay leaf, tarragon, garlic sugar and salt
Turkish Seasoning: Blend for seasoning meats (kabobs to roast), lamb, beef, chicken
Turmeric (Haldi, Curcuma domestica): Yellow, pungent underground root used in Southern Indian yellow curry powders, and in meat, fish, vegetables, sauces, pickles, relishes, prepared mustard for flavor and color. Also used as a dye, antiseptic, cosmetic
Virginia Ham Spice: A mixture of cinnamon and cloves and is a soluble seasoning.
Western Ham Spice: A mixture of cinnamon and cloves and is a soluble seasoning.
White pepper (Piper nigrum): Dried ripe berry (fruit, peppercorn) and the outer shell (black) is removed resulting in a white color. Aromatic, pungent (less than black), fiery, hot mouth sensation (heat), Used like black pepper but less pungent and does not leave black specks in the product (sausage, white sauces) as does black pepper. Hotness scale – 7
Wine: Even a small a\mount of wine (cognac,
White Sauce: Consist of a light roux, milk, butter and seasoning. Used for vegetables, eggs, meat, poultry, and are the basics for cream soups and souffles
Za’atar): In Jordan,